使用 brew 安装的 PostgreSQL 服务，不知道什么时候升级了版本，在启动时失败了，第一次也没有报错。
$ brew services info postgresql postgresql (homebrew.mxcl.postgresql) Running: ✘ Loaded: ✔ Schedulable: ✘
$ brew services start postgresql Bootstrap failed: 5: Input/output error Error: Failure while executing; `/bin/launchctl bootstrap gui/501 /Users/lufei/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist` exited with 5.
去查看 postgresql 的错误日志，查找有用的信息：
tail -n 100 /usr/local/var/log/postgres.log 2022-03-28 08:44:12.638 CST  FATAL: database files are incompatible with server 2022-03-28 08:44:12.638 CST  DETAIL: The data directory was initialized by PostgreSQL version 11, which is not compatible with this version 13.2.
错误信息大概是数据目录是由 PostgreSQL 11 版本初始化的，与当前版本 13.2 版本不兼容。
我记得之前安装的是 11 ，怎么变成 13.2 了？执行
brew info postgresql查看了一下
postgresql: stable 14.2 (bottled), HEAD Object-relational database system https://www.postgresql.org/ /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/13.2_2 (3,218 files, 42.6MB) * Poured from bottle on 2021-05-07 at 14:38:12 From: https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/homebrew-core.git/Formula/postgresql.rb License: PostgreSQL ==> Dependencies Build: pkg-config ✔ Required: icu4c ✘, krb5 ✘, email@example.com ✘, readline ✘ ==> Options --HEAD Install HEAD version ==> Caveats To migrate existing data from a previous major version of PostgreSQL run: brew postgresql-upgrade-database This formula has created a default database cluster with: initdb --locale=C -E UTF-8 /usr/local/var/postgres For more details, read: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/14/app-initdb.html To restart postgresql after an upgrade: brew services restart postgresql Or, if you don't want/need a background service you can just run: /usr/local/opt/postgresql/bin/postgres -D /usr/local/var/postgres ==> Analytics install: 154,721 (30 days), 391,708 (90 days), 1,475,468 (365 days) install-on-request: 150,064 (30 days), 378,837 (90 days), 1,413,606 (365 days) build-error: 30 (30 days)
To migrate existing data from a previous major version of PostgreSQL run: brew postgresql-upgrade-database
意思是要从以前的 PostgreSQL 主要版本中迁移现有数据，请运行：
==> Upgrading postgresql data from 11 to 14... Stopping `postgresql`... (might take a while) ==> Successfully stopped `postgresql` (label: homebrew.mxcl.postgresql) waiting for server to start....2022-03-28 09:09:25.578 CST  LOG: listening on IPv6 address "::1", port 5432 2022-03-28 09:09:25.578 CST  LOG: listening on IPv4 address "127.0.0.1", port 5432 2022-03-28 09:09:25.579 CST  LOG: listening on Unix socket "/tmp/.s.PGSQL.5432" 2022-03-28 09:09:25.607 CST  LOG: database system was interrupted; last known up at 2020-06-10 19:50:23 CST 2022-03-28 09:09:26.551 CST  LOG: database system was not properly shut down; automatic recovery in progress 2022-03-28 09:09:26.556 CST  LOG: redo starts at 0/16FDD18 2022-03-28 09:09:26.556 CST  LOG: invalid record length at 0/16FDDF8: wanted 24, got 0 2022-03-28 09:09:26.556 CST  LOG: redo done at 0/16FDDC0 .2022-03-28 09:09:26.564 CST  LOG: database system is ready to accept connections done server started waiting for server to shut down....2022-03-28 09:09:27.094 CST  LOG: received fast shutdown request 2022-03-28 09:09:27.094 CST  LOG: aborting any active transactions 2022-03-28 09:09:27.095 CST  LOG: background worker "logical replication launcher" (PID 78265) exited with exit code 1 2022-03-28 09:09:27.095 CST  LOG: shutting down 2022-03-28 09:09:27.100 CST  LOG: database system is shut down done server stopped ==> Moving postgresql data from /usr/local/var/postgres to /usr/local/var/postgres.old... ==> Creating database... The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "lufei". This user must also own the server process. The database cluster will be initialized with locale "C". The default text search configuration will be set to "english". Data page checksums are disabled. fixing permissions on existing directory /usr/local/var/postgres ... ok creating subdirectories ... ok selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix selecting default max_connections ... 100 selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB selecting default time zone ... Asia/Shanghai creating configuration files ... ok running bootstrap script ... ok performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok syncing data to disk ... ok initdb: warning: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or --auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb. Success. You can now start the database server using: /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/14.2_1/bin/pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres -l logfile start ==> Migrating and upgrading data... Performing Consistency Checks ----------------------------- Checking cluster versions ok Checking database user is the install user ok Checking database connection settings ok Checking for prepared transactions ok Checking for system-defined composite types in user tables ok Checking for reg* data types in user tables ok Checking for contrib/isn with bigint-passing mismatch ok Checking for user-defined encoding conversions ok Checking for user-defined postfix operators ok Checking for tables WITH OIDS ok Checking for invalid "sql_identifier" user columns ok Creating dump of global objects ok Creating dump of database schemas ok Checking for presence of required libraries ok Checking database user is the install user ok Checking for prepared transactions ok Checking for new cluster tablespace directories ok If pg_upgrade fails after this point, you must re-initdb the new cluster before continuing. Performing Upgrade ------------------ Analyzing all rows in the new cluster ok Freezing all rows in the new cluster ok Deleting files from new pg_xact ok Copying old pg_xact to new server ok Setting oldest XID for new cluster ok Setting next transaction ID and epoch for new cluster ok Deleting files from new pg_multixact/offsets ok Copying old pg_multixact/offsets to new server ok Deleting files from new pg_multixact/members ok Copying old pg_multixact/members to new server ok Setting next multixact ID and offset for new cluster ok Resetting WAL archives ok Setting frozenxid and minmxid counters in new cluster ok Restoring global objects in the new cluster ok Restoring database schemas in the new cluster ok Copying user relation files ok Setting next OID for new cluster ok Sync data directory to disk ok Creating script to delete old cluster ok Checking for extension updates ok Upgrade Complete ---------------- Optimizer statistics are not transferred by pg_upgrade. Once you start the new server, consider running: /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/14.2_1/bin/vacuumdb --all --analyze-in-stages Running this script will delete the old cluster's data files: ./delete_old_cluster.sh ==> Upgraded postgresql data from 11 to 14! ==> Your postgresql 11 data remains at /usr/local/var/postgres.old ==> Successfully started `postgresql` (label: homebrew.mxcl.postgresql)
Successfully started postgresql，说明迁移完成并已经启动，再次连接就可以了。
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